The bakery recipes were laid out in a logical order by ingredient. The ingredients were placed in groups as they were used. Some recipes would use some ingredients in more than one group, so when you come across an ingredient, it should be used from the group of ingredients you are working in.



~8 oz/cup

W A R N I N G this is not cleaning ammonia but a powdered baking ammonia.

 NH4HCO3 Ammonium bicarbonate. Also called hartshorn. A rising agent used before the introduction of baking soda. It can be found at baking supply houses or on the internet. If you wish, you may try baking soda. This was used at Snyder’s Bakery to cause a large (gas) cavity within cream puff shells.


~ 9.6 oz/cup

A dough conditioner used to offset adverse effects of minerals in hard water on yeast. Normally not needed.

Baking powder

~ 6.9 oz/cup

Baking powder contains baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and also includes an acidifying agent usually calcium phosphate. It also contains corn starch as a drying agent.

     Tartrate Single acting baking powder is immediately activated by moisture, so must be baked shortly after mixing.

     Phosphate Single acting baking powder is slightly slower acting than Tartrate.

     Double acting baking powder reacts in two phases and baking may be delayed for a while after mixing. Some gas is created when the powder is added to the batter, but the majority of the action occurs in the oven.

     You may substitute baking powder for soda, but may need to use more to get the proper rise.

     In the conversion process, the baking powder and Soda quantities were modified. These do not convert directly depending on the product.

     If your baking powder is old, check it’s potency by pouring ⅓ cup of hot water over ½ teaspoon of baking powder. It should bubble enthusiastically. If not, dispose of it. It is not recoverable.

Baking soda

~ 8 oz/cup

NaHCO3 Sodium bicarbonate is alkaline in nature. Combined with acidic ingredients such as brown sugar, sour cream, buttermilk, lemon, etc., a chemical action produces carbon dioxide bubbles that expand in the oven. Soda reacts to water so should be thoroughly mixed with the dry ingredients. This action occurs immediately, so recipes must be baked as soon as the batter is mixed.

     You cannot substitute soda for baking powder directly as the baking powder recipe may not have the acidic content to activate the soda.


Blend dry ingredients by hand. Do not use a machine. Usually this indicates that the ingredients should not be overmixed.


~ 2 oz/cup

The bran used was a bran meal similar to a finely ground oatmeal. Most comprehensive grocery stores carry bran flour.

Bread flour

~ 5 oz/cup 

Has higher protein (gluten) - use bread flour.

Brown sugar

~ 7.25 oz/cup

There is a difference in brown sugars. There are different textures as well as differences in lightness and darkness. To make darker add molasses to make lighter add regular sugar.


~ 8 oz/cup

Butter is less stable than margarine. Table butter is usually salted. Salt is used not only as a flavor enhancer, but also has a preservative effect. Some recipes specify unsalted butter. If unsalted butter is not available, decrease total salt in the recipe. Whipping cream requires unsalted butter for a proper product. When heating, butter “scotches” and becomes butterscotch. Check fillings - Butterscotch Pie Filling.

Cake flour

~ 4.25 oz/cup

Has lower protein - use cake flour. Cake flour can carry more sugar due to the lower protein.

Chapman & Smith Fluff

A meringue powder, egg white stabilizer. Not always necessary, try using ½ amount of cream of tartar.

Chocolate liquor

Use bar unsweetened chocolate

Chocolate paste

Try melted BAKER'S Chocolate and HERSHEY'S chocolate syrup, about half of each mixed together.


The coconut used at Snyder's Bakery was not only the shredded coconut found in grocery stores, but also a macaroon coconut which was much smaller in size and dried rather than moist. If using shredded coconut to replace macaroon coconut, you may have to decrease the moisture content as well as modify the quantity.

Coming up oven

The temperature is increasing: start at a lower temperature and increase.

Cook to clear

Bring to a very slow boil until it clears.

Corn meal, bolted

Fibers have been removed.

Corn meal, water ground

The millstone was driven by a water wheel. This usually indicates a more natural processing, and may or may not indicate that the natural yeasts have been destroyed by heating in the drying process.

Corn Starch

Counteracts the adhesion of the gluten in the flour.

Cream of Tartar

~ 9.6 oz/cup

KC4H5O6 Potassium hydrogen tartrate or potassium bitartrate. It is the acidic potassium salt of tartaric acid used as the leavening agent in baking powders. It has the primary benefit of stabilizing and increasing the volume of egg whites. Cream of Tartar gives a creamier texture to sugary things like candy and frosting.

     If needed try substituting lemon juice (2 times).


~ 6 oz/cup

Crisco shortening due to it’s stability can be used to replace most of the shortenings in these recipes. Use the solid, not the oil.


Some recipes used 'crumbs'. These were cake, cookie, and bread crumbs, made from goods that may have been broken, damaged, or may just not have a good appearance. You may substitute pastry flour. Never use green, red, fruit, or coconut.

Decreasing oven

The opposite of ‘coming up oven.’ Start with the oven at a higher temperature and decrease the setting after putting the product in the oven.


Use whole eggs unless whites or yolks are specified. Eggs were measured out using the value of eight pounds per gallon. For home use, use large eggs.

Eggs - beating

Three stages:

           1. soft peak (folds)

           2. firm peak (almost stands)

           3. stiff peak

Emulsion, (lemon)

Thicker creamier, almost like a custard - try using isolate flavors.

Fleischman's Cream

~ 7.25 oz/cup

(Fl Cream)    Cream of Tartar.


~ 11 oz/cup

Orange or lemon - was similar to a marmalade but finely chopped fruit or course ground - try using marmalade.

Flashier Heat

see "Coming up oven"


The main differences in (white) flour is the gluten or protein content. Bread is highest, cake is lowest. The protein content may be written on the bag. The lower the gluten or protein, the more sugar the product can carry.


~ 7.25 oz/cup

A heavy corn syrup (sweetener) that was purchased in 50 gallon drums. Use corn syrup, but decrease the moisture by 1 table spoon for each cup used. Corn syrup that can be bought in a grocery store is much thinner. Recipe conversions in the Bakery Bible have already compensated for this.


Sweetex brand hydrogenated shortening. Use Crisco or similar

Hamburger bun pan

This was a special pan the size of a standard bakery pan, that had formed pockets to assist in the shaping of hamburger buns.


~ 12.8 oz/cup

Honey burns or caramelizes at a lower temperature than granulated sugar. Honey may be used where invert sugar is called for.

Inactive yeast

Brewer's yeast. Used for flavor and nutrition.


~ 9.6 oz/cup

Lemon or orange - oil from skin, use concentrated flavoring like vanilla, rum, or RealLemon. If using RealLemon, more will be required and decrease the liquid in the recipe. RealLemon is not as concentrated as the Isolate flavorings used at Snyder’s Bakery.

Liquid milk

~ 8 oz/cup

Liquid whole milk. If using skim or 2% increase shortening or butter slightly to compensate.


A strong white wine made on the island of Madeira. At the Bakery, this was a concentrated flavoring. Try using ½ vanilla and ½ rum. Vary to taste. This was used for flavoring.


~ 7.5 oz/cup

Margarine is more stable than butter and can withstand a higher temperature. Tastex shortening was an uncolored margarine.

Meringue powder

Try using ½ amount of cream of tartar


~ 11 oz/cup

Light molasses has less iron and is more refined than dark molasses. To make dark molasses light: add corn syrup or/and granulated sugar.


~ 12.8 oz/cup

Inverted sugar - use light honey

Pastry flour

~ 5.5 oz/cup

Medium gluten content. Use all purpose flour


Similar to CRISCO Shortening

Punch down

With bread dough, after rising, pull dough in from sides of bowl and fold into center. This is to help get a uniform texture. Don't exert excessive pressure on any one area. The purpose is to remove large gas pockets from a dough.


A bakers pinch was about ¾ tsp. This is about ⅛ ounce. The baker would reach into the (salt) container with the thumb and first two fingers and grab what he could.


A brand name, see Fruitso

Powdered juices

You may use Kool Aid (powder), treat it about the same - use unsweetened.

Powdered Milk

Hi-Temp ~2.5 oz/cup

Scald to set the casein needed for yeast process. (Roller process.)

This is what should be used for most of these recipes.

Powdered Milk

Lo-Temp ~ 2.5 oz/cup

Drinking milk similar to CARNATION powdered milk. (Spray process.) This may not work as well for yeast products.

Pre-cooked starch

Pre gelatinized starch, very similar to instant pudding without sugar or flavor.


The baker's term meaning to let rise as with yeast products. See chapter on breads.

Rolldough flavor

This was a softener and flavoring used for sweet rolls.


Use regular Table Salt. Most of the recipes when converted to home-use quantities seemed to be too salty, so the proportional salt content was decreased. This is probably the result of the fact that the table salt we used to weigh our sample is a fine grain, and the salt used in the bakery was a much coarser grain. The weight in our conversion formula was changed to accommodate this difference.

     Kosher salt and sea salt also have a coarser grain and therefore weigh less. Kosher salt has no impurities. Sea salt has many.

Seidel Spice Mix

Try pumpkin pie spices

Sheet pan

18 x 26 x 1 inches - standard bakery pan.

A half sheet was 13 x 18 x 1


More stable than margarine or butter and can withstand higher temperatures. Try using Crisco brand.

Soda (baking)

~ 8 oz/cup

NaHCO3 In the conversion process, the baking powder and Soda quantities were modified. These do not convert directly depending on the product. See Baking Soda above.

Standard bakery pan

18 x 26 x 1 inches - sheet pan

Sugar ~ 7.25 oz/cup

If given as sugar, use granulated.


A higher emulsifying shortening for cakes try CRISCO.

Tastex margarine

Use table margarine. Tastex was not colored.


Made softer crumb in bread. use CRISCO in bread.

Warm water bath

If mixing something in a warm water bath, make a 'double boiler' type arrangement. The purpose is to transfer warmth to the ingredients. The proper temperature is about 100 to 120 degrees.


A whole wheat pastry flour. Use whole wheat flour, or replace by weight 5 to 1, Graham flour to bread flour.

Whole Wheat Flour

~5.5 oz/cup

Whole Wheat Flour usually is slightly coarser milled and will have more fiber. If using whole wheat flour to replace bread flour, you will find that you will have to adjust moisture content and shortening.


A single cell fungus that lives on sugary solutions and produces alcohol and carbon dioxide. In bread the carbon dioxide is the gas that forms the cells to give the light airy texture. The alcohol tenderizes the cell structure and evaporates in baking. The flavor of the product varies by the flavor of the yeast.

     Snyder's Bakery used compressed yeast in most of the recipes. This came in one pound cakes that were the size and shape of a pound of butter. The package was marked for partial quantities and the baker cut the cake for recipes that required partial pounds. This compressed yeast was equivalent to cake fresh yeast.

     When the recipes were converted to home use quantities, proper conversion was made to use dry yeast due to availability.

     1 cake of fresh yeast is 0.6 oz equivalent to

     1 package dry yeast

     ¼ oz dry yeast

     2¼ teaspoons active dry yeast

     2 teaspoons instant yeast.

Yeast - Activate

Put the yeast in warm water. The yeast will mix in the water and be easier to mix into the recipe. The activation will be obvious if the yeast is good.

#5 tube

This would be a tube for bagging a product out. The #5 is about ½ inch in diameter.



3 Fold

Put Shortening on A & B

Fold C over B

Fold A over C




4 fold

Put shortening over B & C,

fold A over B,

fold D over C,

put shortening over CD,

fold AB over CD.